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Interpretação de textos

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Interpretação de textos

Mensagem por Pedro em Dom 15 Jun 2014, 9:09 pm

Is ‘Facebook’, the social networking website,
making us narcissist? A new book argues we’re much more
self-absorbed nowadays, stating that technology is to blame.
I tweet, therefore I am. Or is it, I tweet, therefore I am
insufferable? As if adult celebrities that pop out on the red
carpets weren’t clue enough, we now have statistical
evidence that we are a lot more in love with ourselves than
we used to be. This social phenomenon has raised fields of
research to academic studies nowadays. In the book ‘The
Narcissism Epidemic: Living in the Age of Entitlement’, Jean
M. Twenge, a professor of psychology at San Diego State
University, and W. Keith Campbell, a social psychologist at
the University of Georgia, look to the Narcissistic Personality
Inventory, which measures self-regard, materialism, and lack
of empathy. They found that the number of college students
scoring high on the test has risen by 30 percent since the
early 1980’s.

001 | IME 2011
What kind of human behavior is central to the study
mentioned in the text?

a) the alienation of the celebrities from the others around
b) addiction to technology.
c) the high scoring of college students in academic tests.
d) the hard work of social psychologists.
e) excessive positive feelings and admiration of oneself.

002 | IME 2011
What has NOT been encouraging people to act the way
described in the text?

a) technology
b) narcissism
c) materialism
d) psychology
e) entitlement

Scientists say juggling e-mail, phone calls and other
incoming information can change how people think and
behave. They say our ability to focus is being undermined by
bursts of information. These play to a primitive impulse to
respond to immediate opportunities and threats. The
stimulation provokes excitement — a dopamine squirt —
that researchers say can be addictive. In its absence, people
feel bored. The resulting distractions can have deadly
consequences, as when cell phone-wielding drivers and train
engineers cause wrecks. And for millions of people these
urges can inflict nicks and cuts on creativity and deep
thought, interrupting work and family life.

003 | IME 2011
The text states that human beings instinctively:

a) provoke opportunities and threats to other human beings.
b) move towards that which threatens them.
c) react to sudden changes they experience.
d) interrupt work and family life.
e) undermine bursts of information.

004 | AFA 1998
“Can you tell a green field from a cold steel rail?”
(Excerpt from Pink Floyd’s Wish you were here lyrics)

– The questions asks:

a) if you can tell a story about the field and the cold steel
b) if you are able to say how to go from the green field to
the rail road.
c) if you know one difference between the green and the
cold steel rail.
d) if you are able to see how different is a green field from a
cold steel rail.

Want a Reservation at One Hot D.C. Restaurant?
Prepare to Sign a Contract

The restaurant may have Rogue in its name, but the
joint certainly looks to keep its patrons in line.

Many elite eateries have strict policies on
cancellations and photography, but Rogue 24 has taken
what's usually an implicit verbal contract to a binding level.
That's right, get your pen out.

Rogue 24, headed by chef R.J. Cooper, fuses the
eating experience with an intense visual adventure – after
all, it's housed in a grungy D.C. alley surrounded by
dilapidated buildings. But the 2-page contract diners must
sign along with their reservation calls up air of pretension.

Eater DC provides a look at the binding document
which includes a ban on photography and cell phones during
dinner. They cite the attempt to create an environment
“free of distraction” – to focus on the food, right? It's worth
noting that the kitchen is in the middle of the restaurant.
That should provide clamor enough to steal the attention of
even the most tuned-out diners.

Their stated cancellation policy is a demand even
more intense than keeping your phone and camera stashed
during dinner. You can cancel your reservation 72 hours
before with no penalties. Fair. But when breaking it within
that three-day window, prepare to face the penalty. You can
cancel up to 3 p.m. on the day of your reservation with only
a 50% penalty. After 3 p.m. or a no-show to dinner? Rogue
24 doesn't care – they'll put you on the hook for the full
price. That's up to $175 per person (if you choose the 24
courses with wine pairing). But how? Simple. Rogue 24 asks
for your credit card number on the contract, so they've got
you on the hook.

Okay, we realize it could be for Rogue 24's own
protection. __________, their carefully-protected “Journey”
menu runs 24 courses and takes three hours to serve (and
eat). And surely hours of preparation go into each meal,
providing apt backing for the intense cancellation
restrictions. Imagine if photos from such a storied menu
appeared on Twitter? The horror!

But really, no matter how delectable the menu
might be, since when is a simple meal run like a business
deal? You might want to call your lawyer before planning
your night out at Rogue 24. It's only fair.

Adapted from

005 | JFS 2011
Infere-se a partir da leitura do texto que:

a) a multa por um eventual cancelamento de reserva no
restaurante Rogue 24 pode chegar a 175 dólares, por
pessoa, caso o aviso não seja feito com no mínimo 72h antes
do dia marcado.
b) não é permitido o uso de equipamentos eletrônicos
dentro do restaurante em virtude do receio que haja
vazamento de certas técnicas utilizadas pelos chefs do
estabelecimento durante a confecção dos pratos.
c) a assinatura de contratos no ato de se fazer uma reserva é
uma prática que se torna cada vez mais comum nos
melhores restaurantes norte-americanos.
d) o restaurante, localizado em Washington, solicita o
número do cartão de crédito do cliente para garantir que o
pagamento da reserva seja feito antes do dia marcado.
e) o autor não concorda com a política adotada pelo
restaurante Rogue 24 em fazer seus clientes assinarem
contratos no ato de se fazer uma reserva.

006 | JFS 2011
Assinale a opção correta:

a) o vocábulo patron (linha 2) equivale semanticamente a
b) o vocábulo strict (linha 3) pode ser substituído por
c) o vocábulo binding (linhas 5 e 12) pode ser traduzido
d) a expressão up to (linha 24) pode ser substituída por as
far as.
e) a expressão on the hook (linha 26) significa “na lista

007 | JFS 2011
A lacuna presente no 6º parágrafo deve ser corretamente
preenchida por:

a) Inasmuch as
b) Afterwards
c) After all
d) Instead
e) Actually

008 | JFS 2011
As receitas do restaurante Rogue 24 devem ser
extremamente saborosas.

– Qual o equivalente, em inglês, para o vocábulo em negrito
na sentença acima.

a) Receipts.
b) Recipes.
c) Prescriptions.
d) Guidelines.
e) Instructions.

Persuading Leonardo

Although both Ben Shneiderman's Leonardo's
Laptop: Human Needs and the New Computing Technologies
and B.J. Fogg's Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to
Change What We Think and Do are written by academics,
the books transcend academia to provide a different view of
the Internet's potential. Shneiderman prepares the
groundwork for what he calls the "new computing," while
Fogg describes how to make that computing persuasive.
behind Leonardo's
consideration of what Leonardo da Vinci would demand
from a laptop computer and what he would do with it. To
Shneiderman, who is founding director of the Human-
Computer Interaction Lab at the University of Maryland, the
new computing puts users first. Shneiderman begins with a
brief history of computing and computer applications,
declaring that, "These founders of the old computing
overcame technological limitations to build impressive
projects and then turned to producing tools for themselves,
giving little thought to the needs of other users." Although
not a founder, I admit to being of the old computing
generation. I programmed in dead languages such as IBM's
1401 Autocoder and 360 Assembler before progressing to
Cobol and RPG. I have now learned Visual Basic and C++, and
I can report that there is nothing intrinsic to any of these
languages that center a programmer's focus on those who
use their applications. The new computing is not about
understanding human activities and human relationships.
With Leonardo as both creator and user, his laptop
will enable greater creativity and grander goals. This book
goads you with ideas for applications in e-learning, e-
business, e-healthcare, and e-government. Each area is built
around a framework for technology innovation that
Shneiderman calls the "four circles of relationships" and the
"four stages of activities." (…)
Although the mental picture of Leonardo with a
notebook computer excites the imagination, as a literary
device, it does not wear well as the book progresses.
Nonetheless, Shneiderman achieves the objective of
Leonardo's Laptop — creating a foundation for the new

With a new computing application in hand, B.J.
Fogg's Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change
What We Think and Do gives you advice on its
implementation. To Fogg, who launched Stanford's
Persuasive Technology Lab and who holds seven patents in
the area of UI* design, a web site must first be credible to be
persuasive. Fogg has coined the term "captology" to
describe this branch of the study of computers. From the
book's "Introduction:"
Captology focuses on the design, research, and
analysis of interactive computing products created for the
purpose of changing people's attitudes or behaviors.
It is the computer's ability to provide interactivity
that gives its applications an advantage over other forms of
Persuasive Technology describes three basic roles
that computers play: the computer as a tool, as media, and
as a social actor. Further, there are seven types of
persuasive tools described by Fogg. Such tools persuade by
simplifying, tunneling (guiding), customizing, being there at
the right time, removing tedium, rewarding after
observation, and reinforcing proper behavior. As media,
computers can modify behavior by simulating new
endeavors. As a social actor, computers persuade through
praise. However, no matter the role, to persuade, the
application must be credible.
Perhaps the most interesting parts of Fogg's book
are the two chapters that discuss the ways in which
computer applications destroy their own credibility and
what an application or web site must do to be considered,
by its users, trustworthy. According to Fogg, a computing
device or application is perceived to be credible only if it is
first perceived as believable — trustworthiness based on
expertise. In brief, an application is trustworthy if it is
thought to be fair and unbiased. It is trustworthy if its author
or origin is thought to be skilled and knowledgeable. The
crux of the issue is that credibility matters.
Both books are thoroughly documented and both
are excellent points of departure for a more detailed inquiry
into the available material. If both books are taken to heart,
using computers and their applications will become
enjoyable and satisfying.

* U.I. - User Inteface

D. Wohlbruck, Dr Dobb’s Journal, January, 2004.

009 | ITA 2009
Indique o gênero, em inglês, ao qual o texto acima pertence.

a) summary
b) review
c) essay
d) abstract
e) report

010 | ITA 2009
Considere as seguintes afirmações.

I. As duas obras discutidas no texto têm como assunto
principal o uso do computador e suas aplicações atuais e
II. Shneiderman e Fogg, autores do texto, mostram a
potencial aplicação da internet nos dias atuais.
III. De acordo com Shneiderman, o computador eficaz deve
ser, concomitantemente, uma ferramenta capaz de
persuadir e um agente interativo.

– Está(ão) correta(s)

a) apenas a I.
b) apenas a II.
c) apenas a III.
d) apenas I e II.
e) apenas I e III.

011 | ITA 2009
Com relação a Leonardo’s Laptop: Human Needs and the
New Computing Technologies, NÃO se pode dizer que a

a) tem como foco o usuário de computadores, seja ele um
iniciante ou especialista no assunto.
b) destaca a importância de programas como Autocoder e
Assembler, assim como COBOL, RPG, Visual Basic e C++.
c) discute o tipo de uso que Leonardo da Vinci faria, caso
tivesse um computador portátil.
d) mostra a importância das relações humanas no uso do
e) apresenta ao usuário possibilidades de diferentes usos do
computador, dentre eles, para negócios eletrônicos.

012 | ITA 2009
Com relação a Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to
Change What We Think and Do, analise as afirmações a

I. O trabalho foi idealizado no Laboratório de Tecnologia
Persuasiva da Universidade de Stanford e consiste na sétima
criação intelectual do autor.
II. Ao propor um novo conceito na área computacional, o
autor destaca mudanças de atitude ou de comportamento
dos usuários.
III. A obra argumenta que uma página da web deve ser
confiável para seduzir o usuário.

– Está(ão) correta(s)

a) apenas a I.
b) apenas a II.
c) apenas a III.
d) apenas I e II.
e) apenas II e III.

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Data de inscrição : 09/01/2014

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