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[Tests] 10 Questions of Unifesp

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Mensagem por Superbomber em Sex 05 Set 2014, 11:10 am

Olá pessoal, novo teste para vocês da UNIFESP.

Leia o texto abaixo para poder responder as questões:

Will we ever… understand why music makes us feel good?
19 April 2013
Philip Ball
No one knows why music has such a potent effect on
our emotions. But thanks to some recent studies we have a
few intriguing clues. Why do we like music? Like most good
questions, this one works on many levels. We have answers
on some levels, but not all.
We like music because it makes us feel good. Why does it
make us feel good? In 2001, neuroscientists Anne Blood and
Robert Zatorre at McGill University in Montreal provided
an answer. Using magnetic resonance imaging they showed
that people listening to pleasurable music had activated
brain regions called the limbic and paralimbic areas, which
are connected to euphoric reward responses, like those we
experience from sex, good food and addictive drugs. Those
rewards come from a gush of a neurotransmitter called
dopamine. As DJ Lee Haslam told us, music is the drug.
But why? It’s easy enough to understand why sex and
food are rewarded with a dopamine rush: this makes us want
more, and so contributes to our survival and propagation.
(Some drugs subvert that survival instinct by stimulating
dopamine release on false pretences.) But why would a
sequence of sounds with no obvious survival value do the
same thing?
The truth is no one knows. However, we now have many
clues to why music provokes intense emotions. The current
favourite theory among scientists who study the cognition of
music – how we process it mentally – dates back to 1956, when
the philosopher and composer Leonard Meyer suggested that
emotion in music is all about what we expect, and whether or
not we get it. Meyer drew on earlier psychological theories
of emotion, which proposed that it arises when we’re unable
to satisfy some desire. That, as you might imagine, creates
frustration or anger – but if we then find what we’re looking
for, be it love or a cigarette, the payoff is all the sweeter.
This, Meyer argued, is what music does too. It sets
up sonic patterns and regularities that tempt us to make
unconscious predictions about what’s coming next. If we’re
right, the brain gives itself a little reward – as we’d now
see it, a surge of dopamine. The constant dance between
expectation and outcome thus enlivens the brain with a
pleasurable play of emotions.


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