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Mensagem por Pedro em Dom 15 Jun 2014, 9:25 pm

With the 2014 World Cup being awarded to Brazil, it
could be easily argued that football is going home. Ok, so
football originated in Britain and we invented the game but
the Brazilians have perfected it. They’ve taken the game to
their hearts and elevated it to the extent that it is a religion
to the people. The blue and yellow clad players of Brazil
have given us some memorable moments and play the game
with a style and rhythm that no other nation on earth seems
capable of. The game is played to a samba beat that runs
through the heart and soul of the entire country. When they
are on song, they are unstoppable and people the world
over clamour to see them play. Chances are, if you asked
people to name the team they want to see win aside from
their own it would be the magicians from Brazil.

Adapted from http://www.footballworldcupbrazil2014.com/

030 | JFS 2011
O autor do texto acredita que:

a) a religião e o futebol são as duas principais paixões do
povo brasileiro.
b) os brasileiros foram os principais responsáveis pela
profissionalização do futebol.
c) pessoas de outras nacionalidades também torcem pela
seleção brasileira de futebol.
d) os momentos mais marcantes da história do futebol
mundial foram concebidos pela seleção brasileira.
e) várias outras seleções do mundo tentam, em vão, imitar o
estilo de jogo da seleção brasileira.

TV Will Save the World
In a lot of places, it’s the next big thing

By Charles Kenny


Forget Twitter and Facebook, Google and the
Kindle. Forget the latest sleek iGadget. Television is still the
most influential medium around. Indeed, for many of the
poorest regions of the world, it remains the next big thing —
poised, finally, to attain truly global ubiquity. And that is a
good thing, because the TV revolution is changing lives for
the better.

Across the developing world, around 45% of
households had a TV in 1995; by 2005 the number had
climbed above 60%. That's some way behind the U.S., where
there are more TVs than people, but it dwarfs worldwide
Internet access. Five million more households in sub-
Saharan Africa will get a TV over the next five years. In 2005,
after the fall of the Taliban, which had outlawed TV, 1 in 5
Afghans had one. The global total is another 150 million by
2013 — pushing the numbers to well beyond two-thirds of
households.

Television's most transformative impact will be on
the lives of women. In India, researchers Robert Jensen and
Emily Oster found that when cable TV reached villages,
women were more likely to go to the market without their
husbands' permission and less likely to want a boy rather
than a girl. They were more likely to make decisions over
child health care and less likely to think that men had the
right to beat their wives. TV is also a powerful medium for
adult education. In the Indian state of Gujarat, Chitrageet is
a hugely popular show that plays Bollywood song and dance
clips. The routines are subtitled in Gujarati. Within six
months, viewers had made a small but significant
improvement in their reading skills.

Too much TV has been associated with violence,
obesity and social isolation. But TV is having a positive
impact on the lives of billions worldwide, and as the spread
of mobile TV, video cameras and YouTube democratize both
access and content, it will become an even greater force for
humbling tyrannical governments and tyrannical husbands
alike.

Kenny, a development economist, is the
author of a forthcoming book on
innovation, ideas and the global standard
of living

Adapted from http://www.time.com/

034 | ITA 2011
De acordo com o texto, o argumento que melhor justifica o
título TV Will Save the World é:

a) a TV se tornará um meio ainda mais importante para
enfraquecer governos e maridos tirânicos.
b) a TV possibilitará melhoras na educação dos adultos,
principalmente no desenvolvimento das habilidades de
leitura.
c) a TV continuará exercendo um impacto positivo nos países
em desenvolvimento.
d) a TV propiciará a diminuição da obesidade, da violência e
do isolamento social.
e) a TV trará melhoras para a vida de mulheres afegãs.

035 | ITA 2011
Sobre a presença da TV no mundo, o texto informa que:

a) em países em desenvolvimento, haverá mais aparelhos de
TV do que pessoas até 2013.
b) até 2013, mais de 2/3 das famílias, em todo o mundo,
terão aparelhos de TV.
c) depois da queda do Talibã, a TV foi declarada ilegal e
poucos afegãos possuem um aparelho.
d) em 2005, nos países em desenvolvimento, o número de
televisores diminuiu drasticamente.
e) nos países que possuem o maior número de televisores, o
acesso à Internet também é proporcionalmente maior.

036 | ITA 2011
Segundo o texto, um dos impactos que a TV a cabo trouxe
para a vida das mulheres indianas foi que elas:

a) passaram a gostar de ir ao mercado sem a permissão de
seus maridos.
b) ficaram menos propensas a preferir ter um filho a uma
filha.
c) se mostraram mais dispostas a fazer compras sozinhas.
d) ainda acham que os maridos têm o direito de agredir suas
esposas, apesar de já criticarem esta prática.
e) não gostam mais de tomar decisões sobre os cuidados
com a saúde das crianças.



Why Urban, Educated Parents Are Turning to DIY Education

They raise chickens. They grow vegetables. They knit. Now a
new generation of urban parents is even teaching their own
kids.

In the beginning, your kids need you – a lot. They’re
attached to your hip, all the time. It might be a month. It
might be five years. Then suddenly you are __________ (I) to
send them off to school for seven hours a day, where they’ll
have to cope with life in ways they never had to before. You
no longer control what they learn, or how, or with whom.
Unless you decide, like an emerging population of
parents in cities across the country, to forgo that age-old rite
of passage entirely.

When Tera and Eric Schreiber’s oldest child was
about to start kindergarten, the couple toured the
__________ (II) public elementary school a block away from
their home in an affluent Seattle neighborhood near the
University of Washington. It was “a great neighborhood
school,” Tera says. They also applied to a private school, and
Daisy was accepted. But in the end they chose a third path:
no school at all.

Eric, 38, is a manager at Microsoft. Tera, 39, had
already traded a career as a lawyer for one as a nonprofit
executive, which allowed her more time with her kids. But
“more” turned into “all” when she decided that instead of
working, she would homeschool her daughters: Daisy, now
9; Ginger, 7; and Violet, 4.

We think of homeschoolers as evangelicals or off-
the-gridders who spend a lot of time at kitchen tables in the
countryside. And it’s true that most __________ (III) parents
do so for moral or religious reasons. But education observers
believe that is changing. You only have to go to a downtown
Starbucks or art museum in the middle of a weekday to see
that a once-unconventional choice “has become newly
fashionable,” says Mitchell Stevens, a Stanford professor
who wrote Kingdom of Children, a history of homeschooling.
There are an estimated 300,000 homeschooled children in
America’s cities, many of them children of secular, highly
educated professionals who always figured they’d send their
kids to school – until they came to think, Hey, maybe we
could do better.

When Laurie Block Spigel, a homeschooling
consultant, pulled her kids out of school in New York in the
mid-1990s, “I had some of my closest friends and relatives
telling me I was ruining my children’s lives.” Now, she says,
“the parents that I meet aren’t afraid to talk about it.
They’re doing this proudly.”
Many of these parents feel that city schools – or any
schools – don’t provide the kind of education they want for
their kids. Just as much, though, their choice to homeschool
is a more extreme example of a larger modern parenting
ethos: that children are individuals, each deserving a
uniquely curated __________ (IV). That peer influence can
be noxious. (Bullying is no longer seen as a harmless rite of
passage.) That DIY – be it gardening, knitting, or raising
chickens – is something educated urbanites should embrace.
That we might create a sense of security in our kids by
practicing “attachment parenting,” an increasingly popular
approach that involves round-the-clock physical contact with
children and immediate responses to all their cues.

Even many attachment adherents, though, may
have trouble envisioning spending almost all their time with
their kids – for 18 years! For Tera Schreiber, it was a natural
transition. When you have kept your kids so close, literally –
she __________ (V) her youngest till Violet was 4 – it can be
a shock to send them away.

Tera’s kids didn’t particularly enjoy day care or
preschool. The Schreibers wanted a “gentler system” for
Daisy; she was a perfectionist who they thought might worry
too much about measuring up. They knew homeschooling
families in their neighborhood and envied their easygoing
pace and flexibility – late bedtimes, vacations when
everyone else is at school or work. Above all, they wanted to
preserve, for as long as possible, a certain approach to
family.

Several homeschooling moms would first tell me, “I
know this sounds selfish,” and then say they feared that if
their kids were in school, they’d just get the “exhausted
leftovers” at the end of the day. Says Rebecca Wald, a
Baltimore homeschooler, “Once we had a child and I realized
how fun it was to see her discover stuff about the world, I
thought, why would I want to let a teacher have all that
fun?” (…)

For many of the homeschoolers I met, family is
more: the very focus of their lives. And they wouldn’t want it
any other way. One comfort Tera and Eric Schreiber held on
to when they started homeschooling was that if it wasn’t
working out, they could enroll the girls in school, literally the
next day. That developed into an annual reassessment. By
now their rhythms are deeply their own; they are embedded
in a community they love. And at the college up the road
there are plenty of calculus tutors, should they need them
one day.

Adapted from http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/





037 | JFS 2012
Preencha as lacunas I, II, III, IV e V correta e coerentemente:

a) I. expecting – II. high-achieving – III. homeschooling – IV.
upbringing – V. breast-fed
b) I. expecting – II. highly-achieved – III. homeschooling – IV.
upbringing – V. breast-fed
c) I. expected – II. highly-achieving – III. homeschooled – IV.
upbrought – V. breast-feeding
d) I. expected – II. high-achieving – III. homeschooling – IV.
upbringing – V. breast-fed
e) I. expected – II. high-achieving – III. homeschooled – IV.
upbringing – V. breast-feeding

038 | JFS 2012
Segundo o texto:

a) os pais perdem o controle sobre os filhos quando estes
começam a frequentar a escola.
b) o ato de se enviar os filhos para a escola é considerado
um ritual completamente ultrapassado.
c) as pessoas que normalmente optam pela educação fora
da escola são evangélicas ou que vivem em áreas isoladas e,
portanto, desprovidas de escolas.
d) é bastante comum encontrar pais que optaram pela
educação fora da escola ensinando seus filhos em locadoras
de filmes e museus.
e) o bullying está entre as principais causas que têm levado
muitos norte-americanos a tirarem seus filhos da escola e
educarem-nos em casa.

039 | JFS 2012
Marque o item correto.

a) A educação domiciliar permite que os pais ensinem
atividades do dia-a-dia aos filhos.
b) O fato de se passar o dia todo com os filhos pode ter um
lado negativo: a possibilidade de se criar um indivíduo
inseguro e despreparado para o convívio em sociedade.
c) A flexibilidade da educação domiciliar permite às famílias
que optam por tal sistema que tenham mais períodos de
férias do que as que adotam o método convencional.
d) Os pais que escolheram a educação domiciliar como
forma de ensinarem seus filhos são comumente taxados de
egoístas.
e) A criança educada a partir da educação domiciliar precisa
ter seu desenvolvimento avaliado anualmente pelos pais.

040 | JFS 2012
A opção que descreve a palavra secular (5º parágrafo) é:

a) very old.
b) not having any connection with religion.
c) vastly experienced.
d) upper middle class.
e) skilled.

041 | JFS 2012
No 3º parágrafo, o vocábulo affluent pode ser definido
como:

a) wealthy.
b) cozy.
c) developing.
d) peaceful.
e) bustling.

The history of technology is full of breakthroughs in
one field that wound up working wonders in a related one.
The 300B vacuum tube, introduced by Western Electric in
1937 to amplify telephone signals, found a far more
enduring use as a high-fidelity audio amplifier. The atomic
clocks first used in the 1960’s by the U.S. military to track
Sputnik and later to validate Albert Einstein’s relativity
theories are now the basis of Global Positioning System. And
of course, the magnetron, invented in the 1920’s at General
Electric and used in radars during World War II, later found
itself repurposed as the basis for the microwave oven.

049 | IME 2011
According to the text, what is correct to say?

a) The 300B vacuum tube is used in car engines to amplify
the audio communications systems.
b) The atomic clocks are now applied to a different device
than that of its original idealization.
c) The history of technology has proved that it may wound
humans due to its versatility.
d) The atomic clocks were used to play song tracks in high
fidelity quality.
e) The Global Positioning System was validated by Albert
Einstein’s relativity theories.

050 | IME 2011
According to the text, complete the sentence: “The
microwave oven…”

a) relies on the proper function of radars.
b) and the magnetron were repurposed after their
inventions.
c) is one more example of the technological inventions
which have benefited from the innovations generated
during the space race.
d) and radars used during the World War II both count on
the magnetron as one of its components.
e) was first idealized at General Electric.



Soon enough, say some engineers, miniature
wireless sensors will be located in spots where it would be
inconvenient, to say the least, to change their batteries –
inside your body, within the steel and concrete of buildings,
in the dangerous innards of chemical plants. But today, even
the most robust nodes can be counted on to last only a few
years. Ideally, engineers need wireless sensors that can last
forever without external power sources or battery changes.
According to research presented in December at the
International Electron Devices Meeting, in Baltimore, that
dream is within reach.

051 | IME 2011
What inconvenience is mentioned in the text?

a) The fact that batteries are not lifetime loaded.
b) The spots where wireless sensors are placed nowadays.
c) The micro size of wireless sensors.
d) To use wireless sensors inside the body.
e) That buildings are made of steel and concrete.

052 | IME 2011
What does the sentence “According to research presented in
December at the International Electron Devices Meeting, in
Baltimore, that dream is within reach.” imply about the text?

a) In December engineers will come out with a solution for
the problem.
b) At the International Electron Devices Meeting dreams are
reached.
c) The International Electron Devices Meeting is the ideal
meeting to discuss new versions of wireless sensors.
d) Engineers at the International Electron Devices Meeting
dream about new inventions in the field of wireless sensors.
e) It will be possible to produce wireless sensors whose
batteries won’t need to be recharged.

053 | IME 2011
The expression ‘to say the least’ in the text suggests that:
a) the situation mentioned may be more than just
inconvenient.
b) there is a list of technological researches that could solve
the case presented in the text.
c) sensors used inside human body are inconvenient.
d) wireless sensors used within the steel and concrete
buildings are a reachable dream.
e) engineers need a sensor that can last forever without
external power sources or battery changes.

054 | JFS 2010
"Many OECD economies are in, or are on the verge of, a
protracted recession of a magnitude not experienced since
the early 1980s,'' OECD Chief Economist Klaus Schmidt-
Hebbel warned.

– The highlighted expression means the same as:

a) on edge
b) in the neighborhood of
c) on the brink of
d) in the vicinity of
e) surroundings

Twenty years ago, when Paul McCartney turned
50, he remembers his then-manager pushing the idea of
retirement. "It's only right," he was told. "You really don't
want to go beyond 50, it's going to get embarrassing." In
June, McCartney will be 70 ("I'm never going to believe I'm
70, I don't care what you say," he says. "There's a little cell in
my brain that's never going to believe that"), and he still has
no plans to stop touring or recording. "You get the argument
'Make way for the young kids,'" he says. "And you think,
'Forget that, let them make way for themselves. If they're
better than me, they'll beat me.' Foo Fighters don't have a
problem, they're good. They'll do their thing.

"If you're enjoying it, why do something else? And
what would you do? Well, a good answer is 'Take more
holidays,' which is definitely on the cards, but I don't seem
to do that. I love what I do so much that I don't really want
to stop. I'm just kind of casually keeping an eye on how I
feel, and onstage, it feels like it's always felt. So for the time
being, the band's hot, I'm really enjoying myself, still singing
like I sang, not experiencing, touch wood, any sort of
problems to speak of. If it ain't broke, don't fix it."

It doesn't hurt that his touring schedule has been
reduced to shorter, intense bursts in recent years, largely
because of his shared-custody arrangement for his eight-
year-old, Beatrice. "We don't do the big sloggo tour, we
don't do the big U2-Stones go-out-forever thing, and get a
bit fed up with it," says McCartney, who's planning some
dates for later this year. "What we do now is events and
selective dates. Because of my custody situation, I can only
do that. At first, we thought, 'Oh, God, is this going to be a
problem?' and it's actually turned out to be some kind of a
blessing."

He can see himself rocking well into his eighties. "I
can imagine it," he says. "As to whether my imagination will
come true, I don't know. The last couple of years, I've gotten
into guitar – so there's all sorts of little things that crop up
that entice you forward, and you go, 'Hmm, I'd like that.'"
I broach the idea of actually dying onstage –
would he be into it? He recoils slightly, then smiles. "What
kind of question is that? I must say, that's not in my
imagination. Rocking on until a grand old age... the only
thing would be when it's not pleasant anymore, then it
would be 'That's a good time to stop.' But it's way too
pleasant at the moment. And it pays. Good gig, man. But I
know exactly where you're coming from, though. How long
can this go on...?"

Adapted from http://www.rollingstone.com/
– Slightly altered




055 | JFS 2012
No 1º parágrafo do texto, o vocábulo then, utilizado na
construção then-manager, possui relação semântica com
qual das seguintes opções?

a) latter
b) former
c) so
d) late
e) still

056 | JFS 2012
A expressão on the cards (2º parágrafo) é utilizada pelo ex-
Beatle Paul McCartney para indicar que ele:

a) não pensa em tirar férias.
b) deseja tirar férias mais longas.
c) considera a idéia de tirar mais férias.
d) sabe que precisa descansar mais.
e) pensa em aproveitar mais feriados.

057 | JFS 2012
De acordo com o texto:

a) Paul McCartney não gosta do fato de estar prestes a
completar 70 anos.
b) Faz 20 anos que Paul pensou pela última vez na hipótese
de se aposentar.
c) A idéia de se aposentar e dedicar-se aos filhos não agrada
a McCartney.
d) O ex-Beatle não teme ser superado pelos artistas mais
novos.
e) Apesar de não gostar do Foo Fighters, McCartney respeita
o trabalho da banda.

058 | JFS 2012
Consoante o texto, Paul McCartney:

a) costuma analisar seu trabalho no palco como forma de se
autocriticar.
b) ao comentar sobre não ter problemas com sua voz,
demonstra-se uma pessoa supersticiosa.
c) apesar de não demonstrar abertamente, lamenta o fato
de não poder fazer turnês mais longas em virtude de sua
filha mais nova.
d) planeja continuar tocando mesmo quando estiver um
roqueiro “oitentão”.
e) tem medo de estender sua carreira por tanto tempo que
acabe por morrer durante uma apresentação.

059 | JFS 2012
He's a desk-bound pen pusher who dreams of trekking
through jungles.

– O homem descrito acima:
a) trabalha em um banco.
b) é funcionário público.
c) é um trabalhador de “colarinho branco”.
d) atua na área administrativa.
e) tem um trabalho enfadonho.

Our Imaginary, Hotter Selves
Avatars might serve therapeutic purposes,
helping those with social phobia become more confident.

By Sharon Begley

Anyone who has ever had a bad hair day, when
looking like a latter-day Medusa makes you feel cranky and
antisocial and plodding, can sympathize with the Oakland
Raiders – and not because the players get helmet hair. The
Raiders alternated between mostly black and mostly white
uniforms, depending on whether they were playing at home
or away. Knowing that appearance affects people's mood
and outlook, psychologists wondered whether uniform color
influenced the Raiders' aggressiveness. Using data from the
1970s and 1980s, they found that the team racked up way
more penalty yards – a measure of aggression – when they
wore black than when they wore white, for infractions both
minor (encroachment) and major (roughing the kicker). The
pattern held even when the scientists took into account
different conditions and styles of play at home and away.
But while the 1988 finding has become a classic in
psychology, the explanation remains controversial. Do
referees, because of black's cultural baggage, see black-clad
players as meaner and badder than those in, say, baby blue?
Or does wearing black make players see themselves as
tougher and meaner – and therefore cause them to play that
way?
Jeremy Bailenson and Nick Yee of Stanford
University had this and other classic studies in mind when
they started wondering about the effect of being able to
alter one's appearance. They weren't going to study
wardrobe choices, however. Their quarry is avatars, digital
representations of players in such games as Second Life.
"Your physical appearance changes how people treat you,"
says Bailenson. "But independent of that, when you perceive
yourself in a certain way, you act differently." He and Yee
call it "the Proteus effect," after the shape-changing Greek
god. The effect of appearance on behavior, they find, carries
over from the virtual world to the real one, with intriguing
consequences. (…)

Adapted from http://www.newsweek.com.
Acesso em 5/6/2010.









060 | ITA 2011
De acordo com o título e o subtítulo do texto, avatares:

a) proporcionam efeitos terapêuticos e ajudam a prevenir
doenças como a fobia social.
b) são versões imaginárias e mais atraentes de nós mesmos.
c) são mais confiáveis e, por isso, não despertam fobias.
d) têm uma proposta de entretenimento, que torna as
pessoas mais sociáveis.
e) são mais confiáveis do que algumas propostas
terapêuticas disponíveis em nossa sociedade.

061 | ITA 2011
Assinale a opção CORRETA.

a) Os estudiosos da Universidade de Stanford não
consideraram, em seus experimentos, a descoberta
realizada em 1988, cuja explicação ainda é controversa.
b) Psicólogos ainda questionam se, de fato, a aparência afeta
o humor e opinião das pessoas.
c) Jeremy Bailenson e Nick Yee afirmam que a aparência
transforma o modo como as pessoas nos tratam e disso
depende a maneira como percebemos a nós mesmos.
d) A aparência física afeta o comportamento das pessoas e
traz consequências para o mundo real e não apenas para o
virtual.
e) O foco dos estudiosos está no figurino dos avatares e no
modo como isso afeta a agressividade dos jogadores.

062 | ITA 2011
Assinale a opção em que o referente do pronome está
INCORRETO.

a) they (linha 10) em they found that – raiders
b) they (linha 11) em they wore black – raiders
c) those (linha 19) em than those in, say, baby blue? –
players
d) them (linha 21) em cause them to play – players
e) Their (linha 27) em their quarry – Bailenson and Yee’s

063 | ITA 2011
A measure of aggression (linha 11), encroachment (linha 13),
roughing the kicker (linha 13) e digital representations of
players (linhas 27/28) têm, respectivamente, valor
semântico de:

a) exemplificação – explicação – exemplificação – explicação
b) explicação – exemplificação – explicação – explicação
c) explicação – exemplificação – exemplificação –
exemplificação
d) explicação – exemplificação – exemplificação – explicação
e) exemplificação – explicação – explicação – exemplificação

065 | JFS 2012
Qual dos seguintes pares de adjetivos pode formar o grau
superlativo da mesma forma que the most expensive e the
highest, respectivamente?

a) lavish – handsome
b) active – useful
c) famous – boring
d) tired – acid
e) eager – complex

A collaboration __________ Google and 17 of the
world's top art galleries and museums, including the
National Gallery and Tate Britain in the UK, the Google Art
Project takes the Street View approach into the gallery.

With Google Art Project, users can wander around
17 of the world's top galleries and museums and view 1,061
artworks. There are also 17 special gigapixel images – one
for each participating institution's most treasured piece,
allowing viewers to zoom right in to brush-stroke levels of
detail.

Over the past 18 months, a Google team has been
zipping around the likes of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam
and the Palace of Versailles using trolley mounted cameras
to photograph corridors and galleries. Users can explore
each gallery from room to room or create their own
collections of masterpieces.

Adapted from http://www.creativereview.co.uk/

066 | JFS 2012
A lacuna presente no 1º parágrafo deve ser preenchida por:

a) between.
b) among.
c) through.
d) over.
e) amidst.

067 | JFS 2012
Sobre o texto, qual dos itens abaixo pode ser considerado
correto?

a) A Google, a National Gallery e o Tate Britain estão à frente
de um projeto que visa divulgar, via internet, o acervo de 17
dos principais museus do mundo.
b) O Google Art Project permite que o usuário veja fotos, de
extrema qualidade, de mais de mil obras-de-arte.
c) Através do GAP, é possível ver detalhes de determinadas
obras, como as pinceladas de um quadro, por exemplo.
d) O GAP, que levou um ano e meio para ser concluído,
permite que o usuário visite os principais museus de cada
região do mundo.
e) As câmeras utilizadas pela equipe do GAP eram tão
pesadas que precisaram ser carregadas por carrinhos.

068 | JFS 2012
Qual dos seguintes verbos, retirados do texto, pode ser
sinônimo de to stroll?

a) To take.
b) To approach.
c) To wander.
d) To zip.
e) To explore.

092 | JFS 2011
Which of the following words can be turned into the plural
form in the same way as bacteria?

a) Campus
b) Encyclopedia.
c) Criterion.
d) Radius.
e) Stadium.

105 | JFS 2012
Qual dos vocábulos a seguir não pode ser considerado um falso cognato?

a) reported
b) assessment
c) officials
d) classified
e) casualties
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